- 21.6: Molecular Orbitals
- s,p,d,f Orbitals
- What is the difference between the 2px orbital and the 2py orbital?
21.6: Molecular Orbitals
An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.and and paper moon little rock ar
The number denotes the energy level of the electron in the orbital. Thus 1 refers to the energy level closest to the nucleus; 2 refers to the next energy level further out, and so on. The letter refers to the shape of the orbital. The letters go in the order s, p, d, f, g, h, i, j, etc. The letters s, p, d, and f were assigned for historical reasons that need not concern us. All we have to do is remember the shapes that correspond to each letter.
In order to explain both the ground state and the excited state involved in an absorption band in the ultraviolet and visible spectra of molecules , it is necessary to look at the electronic structure of molecules in somewhat different terms from the description given in the sections on Chemical Bonding and Further Aspects of Covalent Bonding. In those chapters we treated electrons either as bonding pairs located between two nuclei, or as lone pairs associated with a single nucleus. Such a model of electronic structure is known as the valence-bond model.
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An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as defined by the particular mathematical form of the orbital. Any orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own spin quantum number. These names, together with the value of n, are used to describe the electron configurations.
In any introductory chemistry course you will have come across the electronic structures of hydrogen and carbon drawn as:. It is, however, a simplification and can be misleading. It gives the impression that the electrons are circling the nucleus in orbits like planets around the sun. As you will see in a moment, it is impossible to know exactly how they are actually moving. The circles show energy levels - representing increasing distances from the nucleus. You could straighten the circles out and draw the electronic structure as a simple energy diagram.
The px orbital has a magnetic quantum number value of -1, and the py orbital has a magnetic quantum number value of 0. They are perpendicular to each other on the three-dimensional axes.
What is the difference between the 2px orbital and the 2py orbital?
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How do mood pencils work? Why do people love these novelty items? It's time to Which among 2px 2py 2pz orbitals have higher energy?.
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